Traumatic Thoracic Aorta Injuries: Outcomes up to 15 years Post Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair
Aortic injuries are one of the leading causes of death following trauma, with a 75% pre-hospital and 50% in-hospital mortality. Endovascular repair is technically easier with fewer complications, but unproven in the long term.
Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injuries from 2001-2018 at Liverpool Hospital. Primary endpoint was death, secondary endpoints were re-interventions, hand ischemia, access vessel repair, cardiopulmonary, neurological and ischemic complications.
24 patients, 10 female, most common mechanism was motor-vehicle injuries (75%) in Zone 3 (71%). Deployment was proximal (n=11), on (n=2) or distal (n=11) to the Left Subclavian Artery (LSCA). Average follow up 5.4 years ±5.1 years (Range 0.1-15.2 years), with 2 deaths. At <90 days, complications were hand ischemia (n=4, n=1 needing intervention), access vessel endarterectomy (n=1) and conversion to open bypass (n=1). At >90 days, complications were hand ischemia needing intervention (n=1), bird-beaking (n=2) and minor graft thrombosis (n=1). Type I endoleak was the only statistically significant predictor of reintervention (RR 21.00, p=0.002) and hand ischemia (RR 4.7, p=0.02). Survival free from any complication in Zone 2 was 50% at less than 5 years; Zone 3 was 58.8% at 5 years, 42.9%at 10 and 15 years; Zone 4 was 100% at 5 years.
Endovascular repair for thoracic aortic injuries has low levels of mortality and morbidity. The LSCA can be covered without arm ischemia, and Type I endoleak carries high morbidity. At up to 15 years follow up, graft complications remain low.